Forgiveness is the main theme for this week. In the Lord’s Prayer at every mass, we say ‘forgive us as we forgive those who trespass against us’, and this familiarity may mask the challenge this can be. Our readings give us opportunity to reflect on how seriously Jesus takes this obligation.
Ecclesiasticus 27:30 -28:7
[This book is known only in the Greek version; it not in the Hebrew Bible and not accepted as part of the canon by Protestants so may be missing in some editions.] The name used here comes from the Latin word for ‘church’ but many modern translations use ‘Sirach’ from the name of the writer, Jesus ben Sira. I am using a helpful introduction by Alexander Di Lella, OFM, in the New Jerome Biblical Commentary.
Ben Sira came to Egypt about 132 BCE where there was a large Jewish-Hellenistic community in Alexandria. He knew much of the Greek philosophic traditions and wrote to ‘demonstrate that the Jewish way of life was superior to the Hellenistic culture and … that true wisdom was found in Jerusalem and not in Athens.’ He chose the Jewish book of Proverbs as his model and, like it, his compilation includes a wide range of styles and there is no outline order.
This selection is close to all that Jesus in Matthew has to say about forgiveness, with heart-felt appeals to Jewish tradition.
Psalm 102/103:1-4, 9-12
This psalm selection is all about how God forgives us. The height of the heavens was the limit of the reach above in the cosmology of the time (also described in the first chapter of Genesis). We who know of the recent discoveries of distances in space can make a more spectacular comparison. The Hebrews thought of a flat earth, with east and west at the farthest distances on the surface. We accept a round planet with a north and south pole with a limited distance from each other, but there is no ‘east’ or ‘west’ pole. You can keep going ‘east’ and never reach ‘west’, which makes for a powerful metaphor of God’s removal of our sinfulness.
This is the one reading this week with a different topic. It brings to an end the current liturgical selections from St Paul’s Letter to the community in Rome, in which he has set out both the theology of Jesus’ salvation and his strong feelings for both the Jewish people and the new Christian churches. A good conclusion in its way, as it looks at both life and death from the new perspective brought by Jesus with his life-death-life for us.
This week’s selection spells out in detail what it means to forgive ‘as we have been forgiven.’ Peter apparently thinks that forgiving a person seven times is quite generous. Jesus responds with one of his typical exaggerations – 70 times 7. This does not, however, mean 490 times is enough! It is a way of saying: this is not something to count. You always have to forgive.
Matthew follows the question with a parable which does not pick up ‘how many times’ but makes clear the way that God forgives us means we must be equally forgiving to others. The story has some wild exaggerations, which we are meant to translate into something other than money. The ‘ten thousands of talents’ would be in the millions in today’s currency – we might think of the slang expression ‘zillions’ for a sum hard to calculate or imagine. The ‘servants’ of a king could be officials, but still it would impossible to pay off that amount even ‘given time’. The king’s remitting of the debt is an act of generosity that can’t be quantified and would be totally unexpected.
The one hundred denarii owed by the second servant would be at most a few day’s wages, and the fellow servant would have some hope of saving that much. But he is given no chance. The obvious difference was noticed by the fellow employees who come to the master in distress. The hearer is drawn into sympathy with these other servants.
Then, as so often in parables, come the ‘kicker’. Jesus suddenly lets us know the story is really about forgiveness of wrongdoing. In the introduction, he says the parable will tell us something about the ‘Kingdom of Heaven’. In this kingdom, God forgives freely and abundantly all the sins of the people. But they in turn, living with the grace of their forgiveness, must share this with all who have offended them in any way. We are to keep in mind the vast discrepancy – no offence to us will equal what we have been forgiven by God.
The alternative is not to belong to the Kingdom of God, so the challenge to forgive stands at what is at the heart of the Christian community. Matthew has kept that aspect clear as this section is part of the address in which Jesus talks about how those who will continue his mission after his resurrection are to believe and act.